Fly Assortment

Thomas hunt?

i dont understand his independent assortment theory with fruit flies?

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_Hunt_Morgan

http://www.answers.com/topic/thomas-hunt-morgan?cat=technology

Following C. W. Woodworth and William E. Castle, around 1908 Morgan started working on the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, and encouraging students to do so as well. With Fernandus Payne, he mutated Drosophila through physical, chemical, and radiational means, and began cross-breeding experiments to find heritable mutations.
However, they had no significant success for two years. Castle had also had difficulty identifying mutations in Drosophila, hardly unusual given the flies' tiny size. Finally in 1909, a series of heritable mutants appeared, some of which displayed Mendelian inheritance patterns; in 1910 Morgan noticed a white-eyed mutant male among the red-eyed wild types. When white-eyed flies were bred with a red-eyed female, their progeny were all red-eyed, while a second generation cross produced white-eyed males—a sex-linked recessive trait, the gene for which Morgan named white. Morgan also discovered a pink-eyed mutant that showed a different pattern of inheritance. In a paper published in Science in 1911, he concluded that some traits were sex-linked, the trait was probably carried on one of the sex chromosomes, and other genes were probably carried on specific chromosomes as well.

Morgan's illustration of crossing over, from his 1916 A Critique of the Theory of EvolutionMorgan and his students became more successful at finding mutant flies; they counted the mutant characteristics of thousands of fruit flies and studied their inheritance. As they accumulated multiple mutants, they combined them to study more complex inheritance patterns. The observation of a miniature wing mutant which was also on the sex chromosome but sometimes sorted independently to the white eye mutation, led Morgan to the idea of genetic linkage and to hypothesize the phenomenon of crossing over. Morgan proposed that the amount of crossing over between linked genes differs and that crossover frequency might indicate the distance separating genes on the chromosome; later English geneticist J. B. S. Haldane suggested that the unit of measurement for linkage be called the morgan. Morgan's student Alfred Sturtevant developed the first genetic map in 1913.

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